矿业及工人法（The Mines and Work Act）
原住民土地法（The Natives Land Act）移民调节法（The Immigrations Regulation Act）1944年
公民身份法（The South African Citizenship Act）
禁止跨族婚姻法（The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act），禁止人种不同的男女结婚；背德法（The Immorality Act），对于跨种族的恋爱行为的*与惩罚；1950年
人口登记法（The Population Registration Act），规定所有人口都要按种族登记；反*主义法（The Suppression of Communism Act），规定政府有权查禁任何被指控为“宣传*主义”的政党；集团地区法（The Group Areas Act），将全国分为不同区域，划出禁止黑人居住的地区；1951年
班图人管理机构法（Bantu Authorities Act），为黑人建立了单独的管理机构；防止非法定居法（Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act），规定政府有权拆除黑人贫民区；土著建筑工人和土著服务法（Native Building Workers Act and Native Services Levy），规定白人雇主有义务在白人区为其黑人雇工修建必要的住房；1953年
隔离设施法（The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act），禁止不同种族的人混用公共服务设施，如盥洗室、候车室等；班图人教育法（The Bantu Education Act），将所有黑人学校收归政府管辖，终止了教会学校的存在；1954年
班图人城市区域法（Bantu Urban Areas Act），禁止黑人在城市定居；1956年
矿业和工作法（The Mines and Work Act），将劳工领域中的种族隔离正式化；1958年
促进黑人自治法（The Promotion of Black Self-Government Act），即“黑人家园政策”
班图人投资法（Bantu Investment Corporation Act），建立起将必要资本转移至黑人家园的机构；大学教育扩充法（The Extension of University Education Act），为黑人、有色人和印度人建立单独的大学；1970年
黑人家园公民身份法（Black Homeland Citizenship Act）：从1971年开始，南非政府将居多数的黑人移居到分散于南非共和国边陲地带（占该国总面积13%）的10个“黑人家园”，并给予这些家园以自治权，目标是使其独立；移居到这些“黑人家园”的黑人会失去南非共和国的公民身份。但是这些“黑人家园”中的白人仍然居有*和经济上的优越地位。南非共和国从1976年到1981年先后扶植文达（Venda）、西斯凯（Ciskei）、川斯凯（Transkei）与博普塔茨瓦纳（Bophuthatswana）等四个“国家”独立，但都没有被国际所承认。1974年
阿非利加语媒体法（Afrikaans Medium Decree）：规定在黑人家园以外的地区，阿非利加语在学校授课中要达到50%的使用比例 在医疗、宗教、就职等其他方面都作出相当的*。
(See on en.wikipedia.org)
David Llewelyn Wark Griffith|birthdate=January 22,1875(1875-01-22)|location=Though United Artists survived as a company,Griffith's association with it was short-lived,and while some of his later films did well at the box office,commercial success often eluded him.Features from this period include Broken Blossoms(1919),Way Down East(1920),Orphans of the Storm(1921)and America(1924).Griffith made only two sound films,Abraham Lincoln(1930)and The Struggle(1931).Neither was successful,and he never made another film.For the last seventeen years of his life he lived as a virtual hermit in Los Angeles.He died of cerebral hemorrhage in 1948 on his way to a Hollywood hospital from the Knickerbocker Hotel where he had been living alone.
D.W.Griffith has been called the father of film grammar.Few scholars still hold that his"innovations"really began with him,but Griffith was a key figure in establishing the set of codes that have become the universal backbone of film language.He was particularly influential in popularizing"cross-cutting"—using film editing to alternate between different events occurring at the same time—in order to build suspense.That being said,he still used many elements from the"primitive"style of movie-making that predated classical Hollywood's continuity system,such as frontal staging,exaggerated gestures,minimal camera movement,and an absence of point of view shots.Some claim,too,that he"invented"the close-up shot.
Credit for Griffith's cinematic innovations must be shared with his cameraman of many years,Billy Bitzer.In addition,he himself credited the legendary silent star Lillian Gish,who appeared in several of his films,with creating a new style of acting for the cinema.
Griffith was a highly controversial figure.Immensely popular at the time of its release,his film The Birth of a Nation(1915),based on the novel and play The Clansman by Thomas W.Dixon,was a white supremacist interpretation of history,and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People attempted to have it banned.After that effort failed,they attempted to have some of the film's disagreeable scenes censored.The scenes inquestion depict derogatory stereotypes of blacks,and white members of the Ku Klux Klan killing blacks to protect white women,which is portrayed as favorable toward the Ku Klux Klan members.Griffith did also say that he made the film with the intention to show how the Scalawags and Carpetbaggers began to rule as tyrants with President Lincoln out of the picture.Griffith did also try to denounce prejudice in his next film Intolerance by showing how slavery was wrong because the Babylonians tried to make some slaves out of their people who didn't believe in some of the main traditional gods.According to Lillian Gish in her autobiography,The Movies,Mr.Griffith and Me,Griffith towards the end of his life expressed an interest in making a film that would be a tribute to African-Americans,but he never got the chance to make that film.
Stamp issued by the United States Postal Service commemorating D.W.Griffith.Motion picture legend Charles Chaplin called Griffith"The Teacher Of Us All".This sentiment was widely shared.Filmmakers as diverse as John Ford and Orson Welles have spoken of their respect for the director of Intolerance.Whether or not he actually invented new techniques in film grammar,he seems to have been among the first to understand how these techniques could be used to create an expressive language.In early shorts such as Biograph's The Musketeers of Pig Alley(1912)which was the first"Gangster film",we can see how Griffith's attention to camera placement and lighting heighten mood and tension.In making Intolerance the director opened up new possibilities for the medium,creating a form that seems to owe to music than to traditional narrative.
Griffith was honored on a 10-cent postage stamp by the United States issued May 5,1975.
In 1953,the Directors Guild of America instituted the D.W.Griffith Award,its highest honor.Its recipients included Stanley Kubrick,David Lean,John Huston,Woody Allen,Akira Kurosawa,John Ford,Ingmar Bergman,Alfred Hitchcock and Griffith's friend Cecil B.DeMille.On 15 December 1999,however,DGA President Jack Shea and the DGA National Board—without membership consultation(though unnecessary according to DGA's regulations)—announced that the award would be renamed the DGA Lifetime Achievement Award because Griffith's film The Birth of a Nation had"helped foster intolerable racial stereotypes".The following living recipients of the award agreed with the guild's decision:Francis Ford Coppola and Sidney Lumet.
D.W.Griffith has five films preserved in the United States National Film Registry as being"culturally,historically,or aesthetically significant".These films are Lady Helen's Escapade(1909),A Corner in Wheat(1909),The Birth of a Nation(1915),Intolerance:Love's Struggle Throughout the Ages(1916),and Broken Blossoms(1919).
Balked at the Altar(1908)
Romance of a Jewess(1908)with Florence Lawrence
The Country Doctor(1909)with Florence Lawrence and Mary Pickford
In Old California(1910)with Henry B.Walthall
In the Border States(1910)with Henry B.Walthall
The Lonedale Operator(1911)with Blanche Sweet
The Smile of a Child(1911)with Blanche Sweet
Fighting Blood(1911)with Blanche Sweet and Lionel Barrymore
Out from the Shadow(1911)with Blanche Sweet
The Making of a Man(1911)with Blanche Sweet
Her Awakening(1911)with Mabel Normand
The Goddess of Sagebrush Gulch(1912)with Blanche Sweet
Friends(1912)with Mary Pickford,Henry B.Walthall,Lionel Barrymore and Harry Carey
An Unseen Enemy(1912)with Lilian Gish
The New York Hat(1912)with Mary Pickford,Lionel Barrymore,Mae Marsh and Lillian Gish
Oil and Water(1913)with Blanche Sweet,Henry B.Walthall,Lionel Barrymore and Harry Carey
Judith of Bethulia(1914)with Blanche Sweet,Henry B.Walthall,Mae Marsh,Lillian Gish and Dorothy Gish
Strongheart(1914)with Blanche Sweet,Lionel Barrymore and Alan Hale
The Avenging Conscience(1914)with Blanche Sweet and Henry B.Walthall
The Birth of a Nation(1915)with Lillian Gish,Henry B.Walthall,Mae Marsh and Raoul Walsh
Broken Blossoms(1919)with Lillian Gish
Way Down East(1920)with Lillian Gish
Orphans of the Storm(1921)with Lillian Gish and Dorothy Gish
One Exciting Night(1922)with Henry Hull
Mammy's Boy(1923)with Al Jolson
The Sorrows of Satan(1926)
Lady of the Pavements(1929)with Lupe Velez and William Boyd
D.W.Griffith's 'Abraham Lincoln'(1930)with Walter Huston
Evelyn Baldwin(2 March 1936-1 November 1947)(divorced)
Linda Arvidson(14 May 1906-2 March 1936)(divorced)
He has been called"the father of film technique
Martin Luther King,Jr.,(January 15,1929-April 4,1968)was born Michael Luther King,Jr.,but later had his name changed to Martin.His grandfather began the family's long tenure as pastors of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta,serving from 1914 to 1931;his father has served from then until the present,and from 1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor.Martin Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia,graduating from high school at the age of fifteen;he received the B.A.degree in 1948 from Morehouse College,a distinguished Negro institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather had been graduated.After three years of theological study at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected president of a predominantly white senior class,he was awarded the B.D.in 1951.With a fellowship won at Crozer,he enrolled in graduate studies at Boston University,completing his residence for the doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955 In Boston he met and married Coretta Scott,a young woman of uncommon intellectual and artistic attainments.Two sons and two daughters were born into the family.
In 1954,Martin Luther King accepted the pastorale of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery,Alabama.Always a strong worker for civil rights for members of his race,King was,by this time,a member of the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,the leading organization of its kind in the nation.He was ready,then,early in December,1955,to accept the leadership of the first great Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the United States,the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his presentation speech in honor of the laureate.The boycott lasted 382 days.On December 21,1956,after the Supreme Court of the United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring segregation on buses,Negroes and whites rode the buses as equals.During these days of boycott,King was arrested,his home was bombed,he was subjected to personal abuse,but at the same time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank.
In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference,an organization formed to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement.The ideals for this organization he took from Christianity;its operational techniques from Gandhi.In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968,King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times,appearing wherever there was injustice,protest,and action;and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles.In these years,he led a massive protest in Birmingham,Alabama,that caught the attention of the entire world,providing what he called a coalition of conscience.and inspiring his"Letter from a Birmingham Jail",a manifesto of the Negro revolution;he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters;he directed the peaceful march on Washington,D.C.,of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address,"l Have a Dream",he conferred with President John F.Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B.Johnson;he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times;he was awarded five honorary degrees;was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963;and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.
At the age of thirty-five,Martin Luther King,Jr.,was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize.When notified of his selection,he announced that he would turn over the prize money of$54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.
On the evening of April 4,1968,while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis,Tennessee,where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city,he was assassinated.